Reading material, external web sites, suppliers of meteorological equipment etc.
This section is intended to give a list of sites on the Internet (biased towards the European area) that give information relating to the climate change discussion.
Met Office / Hadley Centre
The Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction & Research, is an integral part of the Met Office (located at Exeter). The centre is the focus of research into the scientific aspects of climate change and this site provides a useful starting point for information. It is funded via contracts from UK central government, particularly the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the European Commission (EC).
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is jointly funded by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). It aims to assess the raw science and the effects of climate change, and offers mitigating options or strategies for adaptation to human-forced climate change. This particular link will take you to the web site of working group 2 (WGII), which deals with impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, but is a useful jumping-off point for the whole range of IPCC activities.
Climatic Research Unit (University of East Anglia)
The Climatic Research Unit (CRU) is a small organisation, but is generally recognised as one of the leaders into the study of natural and anthropogenically-forced climate change. It works in collaboration with the Hadley Centre and other organisations (though independent from such), looking at climate history, the impact and cause of change and trends for the future.
The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research is funded by several research councils within the UK, and also gets some central government support. It aims to develop strategies for sustainable response to climate change, and acts as a focus for dialogue (nationally and internationally) across academic, business, media and government interests, as well as helping to educate the general public.
BBC Weather Centre information pages (BBCi)
Although there would not be any 'original' research on this site, because of the world-renowned status of the BBC, and particularly its web-site (BBCi), this source is a useful first-point of call for those wishing to brief themselves on the climate change debate. It can be recommended particularly for school-level studies as a jumping-off point to some of the other sites mentioned in this section. The BBC is funded by the UK broadcast licence fee.
UK Climate Impacts Programme
The UKCIP aims to help organisations assess how they might be affected by climate change. It is funded by DEFRA and based at the University of Oxford. No underlying science will be found here, rather advice based on work by, for example, the Hadley Centre & the IPCC as to how the UK can adapt to changes foreseen.
Climate Change FAQ
This is the classical way that the old 'usenet' community would keep itself updated on specific topics: by having a FAQ (Frequently Asked/Answered Questions) list available. At the time of writing this section, you should note that this FAQ was last updated in 1997, so care needed.
MMU Student Guide to Climate Change
This is a huge document, intended as a briefing resource for students studying on the various environmental courses at the Manchester Metropolitan University. I don't think it is intended that you plough through it from page 1, but by using the menus, some very useful information is contained therein.
US Global Change Research Information Office
To quote from the home page .. "since 1993, disseminating scientific research information useful in preventing, mitigating, or adapting to the effects of global change." As it is US federal government funded, it carries weight and offsets somewhat the oft-held view that all in the States don't care about 'global warming': careful perusal of this site suggests otherwise.
Evert Wesker's site relating to the climate change debate
This is a personal site maintained by someone who works in the Oil industry - no, don't switch off! There is much good sense here, as well as many links to other points of information. Issues addressed are those that we all think about / discuss from time-to-time.
Alastair McDonald's site, primarily relating to sea-ice changes
Alastair's particular interest lies in the changes of sea-ice and ocean temperatures - particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. The site is particularly useful for the comparison over recent years in the extent of Arctic sea-ice.
The WS family are a range of professional meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation (type & quantity), wind speed/direction. Digital communication via the Lufft UMB open protocol interface module for integration into OEM systems such as pollution monitoring or road weather information systems etc.
The supply of professional automatic weather stations, including configurations approved by The Met.Office. The systems use high-quality components and so are not the cheapest. However, they are accurate, rugged and reliable and can be configured according to requirements.
An extensive range of Classical Meteorological Instrumentation for monitoring temperature, sunshine, airflow, humidity, pressure and rainfall. Along side the classical range, Automatic Weather Stations are available. These resilient units use new technologies with easy to use WindowsTM software and a wide range of sensors to measure meteorological variables.
(Current status of this company is unknown: 22 Jan 2008)
Diplex have many years experience in the supply of an extensive range of quality equipment at affordable prices to both the amateur and professional/educational community. Conventional thermometers, hygrometers, barometers and rain-gauges are of course available, but rugged, easy-to-use distant-reading electronic units to monitor temperature, relative humidity and rainfall are also offered. An inexpensive instrument screen for self-assembly is available and a wide range of recording instruments in attractive mountings, including barographs, thermographs, hygrographs, thermo-hygrographs, along with complete Weather Stations (analogue & electronic/wireless): anemometers are also supplied.
Fairmount are manufacturers a wide-range of meteorological instrumentation, from traditional to the latest design. The range includes: Automatic Weather Stations, Environmental Monitoring Systems, Data Collection Platforms & satellite reception systems. Some items available (from a wide range) are: copper rain-gauges, autographic recorders, wind vanes/anemometers, tipping bucket rain-gauges & a full range of high-grade thermometers. Also available are pens, charts, spare parts etc., as well as sunshine cards for Campbell-Stokes recorders. The company also manufactures products under design & development contracts as well as precision engineering in their own workshop.
Instromet Ltd (was R & D Instromet)
Weather monitoring instrumentation with classic analogue dials and digital readouts in real wood cabinets or brass cases with optional PC Data-logging. Automatic Weather Stations with large memory,battery back-up and Windows(TM) 'family' software. Parameters measured:- Wind speed, Wind Direction, Temperature, Sunshine Duration, Rainfall, Humidity, Automatic Internet up load. Stand-alone sensors for Wind Speed and Direction, Sunshine Duration etc. Wind Speed/Direction Alarms and Actuators.
McMurdo Ltd (was ICS Electronics)
The Davis range of weather stations - high precision Weather Monitoring solutions for Home and Industry users. Sensor options include: Anemometer, pressure, rainfall, temperature and humidity. Industrial systems also offer UV, Solar radiation and Leaf wetness. A comprehensive Windows (TM) computer data logging interface and a wide range of installation options are available: see web site for more details.
The supply of various weather instrumentation, including raingauges, barometers, hygrometers, thermometers, complete weather stations etc. Also Stevenson-pattern screens & various electronic instruments.
From individual items of equipment, through 'desktop' weather monitoring displays to fully-featured weather stations (wireless & cable), this on-line source is fully featured and a wide variety of stock is available. Software & books can also be purchased and of particular interest to many in this newsgroup, a range of lightning detectors. All items can be ordered via the site, paid for using recognised credit / debit cards.
Munro Instruments (the Meteorological Division of the Munro Group)
Munro Instruments supply a wide range of meteorological & hydrological equipment sales & service. Since 1892, Munro has achieved a reputation for excellence in providing instruments & systems of the highest quality to measure, monitor & record environmental phenomena. They offer a full range of equipment from 'traditional' weather observing instruments to the latest electronic equipment. Munro supply equipment to meteorological offices, water authorities & government departments world-wide.
Prodata Associates Ltd
(1) The Davis range of weather instrumentation including the new Vantage Pro range of stations; (2) Software and expertise for linking weather stations to personal computers.
Russell Scientific Instruments
A wide range of products, including 'traditional' instrumentation, digital 'distant reading' units & a variety of thermometer (or 'Stevenson') screens. The firm will also undertake restoration of such as hall barometers.
Sales and Service Company
59A, Station Road, Chingford. London. E4 7BJ (UK)
Tel: 0208 505 3280 (intl: +44 208 505 3280) Fax: 0208 559 0425 (intl: +44 208 559 0425)
Service and supply of spares, recording charts, pens, inks etc., for all types and makes of autographic instruments. Suppliers of weather instrumentation, including: barometers, rain gauges, frost predictors, thermometers, hygrometers, hand anemometers etc.
Skye Instruments Ltd.
A British company with a world-wide reputation for the design & manufacture of high quality environmental instrumentation. Skye’s MiniMet weather station is an accurate yet low-cost system, which can be customised to suit individual requirements. Meteorological parameters such as relative humidity, air/ground temperature, solar radiation, wind speed/direction, rainfall, leaf wetness & barometric pressure can all be monitored. Downloading weather records also possible, through a direct cable link for local installations or a GSM mobile telephone link for remote locations.
Skyview - The Weather Company
Skyview is based in the UK, and supplies a wide range of meteorological, hydrological and marine instruments to commercial, civil, avionic and military authorities worldwide: the equipment would also suit the keen amateur, with competitively priced units ranging from hand-held anemometers and wireless rain-gauges to complete weather monitoring systems (wireless or cable). The company offers a wide range of high technology software and equipment, along with a spares and after-sales support service for such as Oregon, Davis & Lacrosse.
Weather Front/the UK Weather Shop
A wide range of products such as books, posters, thermometers, barometers, anemometers, rain-gauges. Also the latest electronic weather monitoring and recording equipment. All from major manufacturers such as Davis Instruments, Oregon Scientific, Kestrel, BariGo, Diplex etc. See online catalogue or visit the shop. Full details and secure online purchasing available on web site.
(look in the folder called 'Software' for downloads)
Services supplied: Shareware for recording weather observations (Weather Log).
Services supplied: MeteOS 2002 is a system for creating a wide range of weather plots and loops. It's useful for operational forecasters and weather researchers. It takes data from different ftp servers, starts a numerical model and creates plots. (copied from the MetOS web page ... this application appears to be a very sophisticated tool - see the web site.)
Services supplied: A range of Windows(TM) software to extract data from the GTS, which are available on the Internet. The data can then be manipulated & presented to professional standards. In particular, "WeatherPlot" - a master menu driven program to call sub-routines to sort / plot surface and upper air data. SYNOP data in particular can be plotted to any scale, for uploading to a web page or printed locally. Tephigrams (or SkewT) & Hodograms can be plotted to assess upper air developments and the 'classic' upper air charts also produced. Designed for both the amateur and professional meteorologist and private aviators and glider pilots. For more details, see the web-page.
Services supplied: The Digital Atmosphere UK software will automatically download weather data, then display as standard plots, MSLP analyses, wind field analyses etc. Other parameters can be contoured as required. Other software packages are available.
Services supplied: Free software for Davis Vantage Pro and Pro2, Oregon Scientific WM918 and WMR918, WMR 928 and WMR968, and Fine Offset weather stations.
Some worthwhile reading.
Don't forget books!
In fact, whilst there is a wealth of information on meteorology available via 'on-line' or other electronic methods, a good book on meteorology on your shelf to refer to is worth many hours of idle browsing. The list below is not intended to be 'the final word' but are ones that I have found useful. Some are no longer in print: you will need to hunt them out at second-hand bookstores, request them from your local library or perhaps try the 'on-line' second-hand book finding sites on the Net. There are also a number of 'on-line' ordering / supply sources for current-title books (and other media) to try.
N.B. Where Amazon links are given, these are affiliate links. Using these links to purchase books may yield a small payment towards the upkeep of this resource - at no cost to the purchaser. There is no obligation and you should feel free to break out of the affiliate link if you wish to.
Some magazines/journals which deal with meteorology, atmospheric sciences etc., on various levels are listed below: (N.B: If I've missed any, particularly for Ireland and regional areas in the UK, please forgive, but let me know the details so I can publicise!)
5B.1 THE JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGY: published monthly (sometimes every 2 months), in association with TORRO (see also here). Write to:- The Journal of Meteorology, PO Box 5161, Bournemouth, Dorset, BH10 4WJ. [ This magazine is an excellent read for all interested in meteorology, and although it has a core specialisation in thunderstorms and allied phenomena, it also carries well-written articles relating to a wide range of general meteorological topics. Also contains a statistical summary of the UK weather for a selection of sites and detailed summaries of thundery/tornadic activity. Suitable for anyone with a keen interest in the subject, both amateur and professional. ] Visit the website at: http://www.journalofmeteorology.com
5B.2 WEATHER: published monthly by the Royal Meteorological Society (see also here) write to: -Royal Meteorological Society (Weather Subs), 104, Oxford Road, Reading, Berkshire. RG1 7LL. [ This well produced magazine contains articles covering the full range of the meteorological science, from 'case-studies' of single events, through reviews of notable months/seasons in recent and long-past history, to long-term climatological and atmospheric physics surveys. You also get the monthly 'Weather Log' (currently edited by Philip Eden), which is an invaluable record of the weather, as it contains a series of miniature daily weather maps covering Europe and the North Atlantic, and a written summary of the weather, statistics etc. Suitable for all levels of expertise, both amateur and professional. ] follow the appropriate link from: http://www.royal-met-soc.org.uk/
5B.3 METEOROLOGICAL APPLICATIONS: published quarterly in association with the Royal Meteorological Society (see also here) Write to:- Journals Marketing Dept., Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. CB2 2RU. [ This magazine, (which replaced in large measure the long-running 'Meteorological Magazine' series in the UK), is aimed primarily at professional meteorologists, and users of meteorological services - hence the 'applications', and some of the subjects are given a rigorous mathematical/physical treatment. Despite this, keen amateurs would find something of interest in most issues, but unfortunately the annual subscription may be rather steep for many. ] follow the appropriate link from: http://www.royal-met-soc.org.uk/
5B.4 QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY: published eight times per annum by the Royal Meteorological Society (see also here). Write to:- Royal Meteorological Society (QJRMetSoc), 104, Oxford Road, Reading, Berkshire. RG1 7LL. [ This publication is one of the leading meteorological journals in the science. It contains the results of ground-breaking research in the atmospheric sciences and applied meteorology. Its deep treatment of the subject, plus the annual subscription level mean that this publication is aimed at the academic and professional end of the market. ] follow the appropriate link from: http://www.royal-met-soc.org.uk/
(NB: the Royal Met.Soc web site also contains useful links relating to other, more specialised magazines that are available.)
5B.5 CLIMATOLOGICAL OBSERVER'S LINK - BULLETIN: published monthly. Details (and a specimen/free copy) are available from: Roger Brugge, 16 Wootton Way, Maidenhead, Berkshire. SL6 4QU. [ Roger Brugge is the secretary of COL which aims to publish the bulletin by about the 24th of the following month --- whilst the previous month's weather is still relatively fresh in the mind. They claim that the bulletin is one of the fastest sources of monthly meteorological data to be published. In addition to the monthly station summaries (currently around 300), there is a synopsis of the month's weather, letters page, mean surface pressure maps etc.] for more details, go to: http://www.met.rdg.ac.uk/~brugge/col.html
5B.6 WEATHER EYE: Three issues per year. Details via the web site: http://www.frostedearth.com or from: Frosted Earth, 77, Rickman Hill, Coulsdon, Surrey. CR5 3DT [The following is taken from the description on Ian Currie's web page..."If you have ever marvelled at a spectacular sunset, 'Weather eye' is for you. If you have set up a thermometer or rain gauge in the garden or regularly tune into the TV or radio for a Weather Forecast then 'Weather eye' will keep you absorbed in what is a fascinating subject"]
4.1 SCI.GEO.METEOROLOGY NEWSGROUP FAQs:
sci.geo.meteorology, has a series of FAQ's for data sources. The multi-part FAQ is posted regularly to sci.geo.meteorology. You can obtain current copies of this FAQ series by anonymous FTP at:
or in hypertext form via http://www.faqs.org/
(as at March, 2002 the updating process on this series appears to have lapsed)
For the latest news on severe thunderstorm events, tornadoes, waterspouts etc., a visit to the web site of the Tornado and Storm Research Organisation is essential. TORRO have produced a FAQ / information series relating to matters that they are particularly interested in. In addition to the information on "severe" convective weather events, there are a host of other useful data and www links. Also visit this site for details of the TORRO Membership Scheme:
4.3 ROGER BRUGGE'S WEATHER LINKS SITE:
This is one of the best maintained and most comprehensive of sites with links to 'weather data', i.e. both actual(real-time), forecast and climatological, not only for Europe, but around the world. There are also a multitude of links to other sources of information e.g.
> information on magazines/journals
> information on jobs available
> Climatological Observers Link (see this FAQ entry)
> Sources of monthly summaries
> Meteorological definitions
... and so on: far too many to list here.
Find it at:
... and for the NW European area: http://www.met.reading.ac.uk/~brugge/bi.html
4.4 ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY:
Useful site with plenty of information about the activities of the Society, it's educational work and some links to other sites. The site is also worth visiting for a list of publications / periodicals the Society promotes:
4.5 UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA - SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES:
Well known for its work on climate research/change etc:
The Central England Temperature (CET), England and Wales Precipitation (EWP) and other data sets are available via this site. To go directly to these data use:(courtesy of Mike Hulme) http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/~mikeh/datasets/uk/
And, for graphs showing such as Global temperatures, Southern Oscillation Index and North Atlantic Oscillation Index go to: http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/tiempo/floor2/data/data.htm
4.6 BBC WEATHER CENTRE:
Lots of information on this site (including UK Radar data!) .. increasing all the time. Amongst the topics covered are: information on the presentation of weather forecasts, the team at the BBC Weather Centre, and background to the forecasts. Also, monthly summary details including provisional CET and EWR values.
in addition, you can now e:mail your weather observations direct to the BBC Weather Centre on:
4.7 THE UK WEATHER INFORMATION SITE:
A primary source for weather related information of interest to all uk.sci.weather contributors. The site is kept up to date by Martin Stubbs, and is recommended for 'first-contact' with respect to a whole range of actual and forecast data.
4.8 UNIVERSITY OF COLOGNE (for plotted data):
A very useful site for daily & 6-hourly updates of plotted charts over Europe and other areas around the world. Includes rainfall, extremes of temperature, sunshine totals:
4.9 ANT VEAL'S "UK WEATHER CENTRE"
A superb site full of links to all sorts of other sites of interest to the amateur weather community. As well as 'current weather', there are sections on books/publications to refer to, instrumentation, links to web-cams, etc. If you don't bookmark anything else, have this one!
4.10 WILL HAND'S WEB SITE:
Local Berkshire and east Dartmoor weather, links, etc. Also a useful forecast discussion series for the UK and Devon updated weekly.
maintained by: Will Hand:
4.11 IRISH METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY:
links to forecasts, information etc., relating to Ireland:
4.12 PITSFORD HALL WEATHER STATION:
Lots of local data, plus useful links to many other weather sites:
4.13 PRODATA ASSOCIATES/AUTOMATIC WEATHER STATIONS:
"This is a site for weather enthusiasts, hosted by Prodata Associates. It is intended as a resource especially for those with a fascination for setting up and using their own automatic weather station". [ Although this site carries some promotional material, its contents and advice will prove useful enough to justify inclusion in this FAQ.]
and, associated with this site is a very useful 'clickable' map linking many 'on-line' independent automatic weather stations across the UK:
4.14 WEATHER INFORMATION SITE:
Many useful links to, for example, satellite imagery, current & past weather, forecasts, weather reports/summaries for Birmingham & a useful list of meteorological abbreviations, decoding information etc. maintained by Richard Adams:
4.15 FROSTED EARTH WEATHER SITE:
Various links and weather services/information etc., and details of books written by Ian Currie, the author of this web site. Of particular interest is the information relating to the magazine "Weather Eye" (see also here):
4.16 THERMODYNAMIC DIAGRAMS
This is a link to a section of this site with a description of the various diagrams used to represent atmospheric conditions in the vertical, plus links to sites that give guidance on how to interpret same. Also, via this link, you can find actual soundings plotted for use.
4.17 JACK HARRISON'S GLIDING AND WEATHER SITE
Information & interpretation of weather forecasts for use by glider pilots (primarily for the southern half of the UK); a set of links to weather information of a relatively specialised nature of particular use to aviators and a 'ready-source' for the non-technical person of weather forecasts, satellite pictures, etc. There is also a very useful section explaining more about upper air soundings, with sources etc. Jack is a regular contributor to the newsgroup, a recently retired airline pilot (and a '3-diamond' glider pilot) of great experience and with his evident deep knowledge reinforced by flying in 'real weather', his site is well worth a visit:
4.18 MET OFFICE WEB SITE
An increasing amount of information, both climatological & current-data, relating to the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland. Some very interesting 'past-weather' events to read. Also, a lot of information on current research into NWP & climate change, education support services and of course general information regarding the UK's primary weather services provider:
A truly superb site that has been around for some time. A source of both current, very recent and climatological data as well as providing NWP output (based on the NCEP model). Also, useful summaries of both individual weather events, and monthly write-ups, the latter often by Philip Eden.
4.20 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT
(That's how they spell Encyclopaedia!)
Provided by Manchester Metropolitan University, with support from the DETR, this site has a wealth of linked information relating to a whole host of atmospheric processes, and is pitched at levels to suit all in this newsgroup. Some of the topics covered are Acid Rain, the Atmosphere and its constituents, Climate change, Ozone amongst others.
A superb site for images of all sort - including many to do with meteorology. The photographs of cloud formations in particular are quite stunning: maintained by Ian Collins.
4.22 METEOGROUP (was, until 2006, PA WEATHERCENTRE)
A site that combines service on a strictly commercial basis with a wealth of information, data etc., that all will find of use: in particular, the provision of 15 minute 'real-time' radar imagery is a real 'boon' to the hobbyist, as is the availability of a decent on-line weather calculator. Also worthy of note is the 'news' section, including monthly weather summaries.
4.23 JOHN HOLMES: WEATHER STATION
John has many years experience of things meteorological - particularly from a practical point of view, so this site, containing local (Doncaster) data and links to other weather sites is well worth visiting / bookmarking.
4.24 MET ÉIREANN: IRISH METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE
Usual forecasts, climatology etc., that you would expect from a national weather service plus other information; a useful explanation of the SYNOP code for example:
4.25 METBRIEF (JON O'ROURKE)
If you are looking for a site that gathers together a whole swathe of useful charts, links etc., to get you up to speed, this is the one! Jon has his finger on the pulse of what is currently available to meteorological enthusiasts, and is uniquely placed to bridge the gap between the keen members of uk.sci.weather & the professionals:
4.26 WEATHER-UK.COM (PHILIP EDEN)
Daily observations and monthly summaries for three sites - the official climatological station at Hampstead, north London; together with stations at Luton (Bedfordshire / England); and at Milhaguet in southwest-central France. Historical data is slowly being added to the Hampstead and Luton pages. There is also a resource for editors seeking feature copy with a 'weather' content:
4.27 CLIMATE-UK.COM (PHILIP EDEN)
Day-by-day monitoring of temperature, rainfall and sunshine in the UK (particularly useful to keep a track of latest CET & EWP values), together with monthly sea-level pressure (and anomaly) charts, and graphs of monthly circulation indices for the British Isles extending back to 1873. Monthly reviews of the UK's weather in the style of the old DWR Monthly Summary.
"Not The Long-Range Forecast" provides a prospect for the next 30-days based on a subjective selection of analogues, and Philip tells me ... 'this was designed as a non-self-promoting antidote to the proliferation of over-hyped and under-explained long-range forecasts available on the internet.' See this site at:
EuroTempest is a collaborative effort involving the insurance industry & researchers expert in using NWP modelling to forecast extreme winds & resultant damage. The data are provided via web-graphical & text-based output in real-time. The academic 'lead' is based at University College, London (UCL). Via this site, output can be viewed on forecast wind fields, and by registering, you can receive alerts when 'high wind' events are forecast that might cause damage out to 5 days ahead.